Yellow-dust storms (YDSs) have attracted increasing attention worldwide in the past decade. They can extensively disrupt socioeconomic activities and pose hazards to ecosystems, as well as to human health. In recent years, China has invested multi-billions of dollars to mitigate the impact of YDSs. However, the effectiveness of such YDS control programmes has rarely been evaluated. This research develops a causal model to quantify the environmental benefits of YDS control programmes in China, and further employs regional economic models to evaluate the ensuing economic impacts.