Energy efficiency measures in residential buildings are some of the lowest-cost means of cutting energy use and greenhouse gas emissions. According to experts, by 2020, residential buildings will consume 20% of U.S. total energy use – more than the commercial sector – and will contribute 1,350 million tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) to the U.S.’s annual carbon emissions.
This volume is devoted to critically exploring the past, present and future relevance of international law to the priorities of the countries, peoples and regions of the South. Within the limits of space it has tried to be comprehensive in scope and representative in perspective and participation.
Multi-Regional Systems Planning
We recognize that the problems facing today's planners are at the scale where the old categories of urban, suburban and rural no longer suffice. All program groups, therefore, operate at the scale of cities and their surrounding regions and we consider Regional Planning to be a cross-cutting area.
It conducts cross-disciplinary work both internationally and domestically.
Mobility Systems Planning
Within MIT's Department of Urban Studies and Planning (DUSP), transportation serves as one of the cross-cutting research/education areas, since transportation links to all elements of DUSP's Program Groups: housing and community economic development, environment, city design, and international development.
When Christopher Zegras started studying the way cities work, in the early 1990s, it wasn’t in a classroom, and he wasn’t pursuing a formal academic project. Instead, Zegras was a recent college graduate who had majored in economics and Spanish, and was trying to combine both of those interests in his first real job. As such, he had found a position in Santiago, the capital of Chile, working in finance.
“Chile had been going through its re-emergence as a democracy, and I wanted to see what that was like,” Zegras says.
While extreme concentrations of poor racial minorities, briefly `rediscovered' as a social problem by media in the wake of Hurricane Katrina, declined significantly in the 1990s, no research has determined whether the trend reduced exposure to poor neighbourhoods over time or changed racial gaps in exposure. Yet most hypotheses about the social and economic risks of distressed neighbourhoods hinge on such exposure.