Journal Article
‘Small-town defenders’: the production of citizenship and belonging in Hazleton, Pennsylvania

<p><span>Over the past five years an aggressive movement has emerged to return immigration&nbsp;</span><br /><span>enforcement powers to the local level in the US, and to some extent in Europe as well.&nbsp;</span><br /><span>Hazleton, PA, was home to the first local government in the US to pass an 'Illegal&nbsp;</span><br /><span>Immigration Relief Act'(IIRA), which subsequently became a model for other cities across the&nbsp;</span><br /><span>country seeking to implement their own immigration regulations. We argue that Hazleton's&nbsp;</span><br /><span>IIRA was as much productive of tensions over migration as it was the product of them.&nbsp;</span></p>

Title
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2012
AuthorsSteil J
Secondary AuthorsRidgley J
JournalEnvironment and Planning D: Society and Space
Volume30
Issue6
Start Page1028
Date Published12/2012
Abstract

<p><span>Over the past five years an aggressive movement has emerged to return immigration&nbsp;</span><br /><span>enforcement powers to the local level in the US, and to some extent in Europe as well.&nbsp;</span><br /><span>Hazleton, PA, was home to the first local government in the US to pass an 'Illegal&nbsp;</span><br /><span>Immigration Relief Act'(IIRA), which subsequently became a model for other cities across the&nbsp;</span><br /><span>country seeking to implement their own immigration regulations. We argue that Hazleton's&nbsp;</span><br /><span>IIRA was as much productive of tensions over migration as it was the product of them.&nbsp;</span></p>