The implementation of the Affordable Care Act of 2010 and the Obama administration’s urban policy create an opportunity to link community development with health in new and powerful ways. New federal programs, such as the Affordable Care Act’s Community Transformation Grants, seek to prevent death and disability through policy, environmental, programmatic, and infrastructure changes. But fragmented congressional jurisdiction and budget “scoring” rules pose challenges to needed reform.
Improving locational outcomes emerged as a major policy hope for the nation's largest low-income housing program over the past two decades, but a host of supply and demand-side barriers confront rental voucher users, leading to heated debate over the importance of choice versus constraint. In this context, we examine the Moving to Opportunity experiment's first decade, using a mixed-method approach.
Two opposing views of service-led development contend, on the one hand, that services can be a propulsive force in rural economic development and, on the other, that services are neither independent of, nor a replacement for, older forms of rural industrialization such as agriculture, mining, and manufacturing. Both views fail to account for the dualistic nature of rural services growth, which does not mirror the developmental experience commonly associated with services in the nation's cities.
Several authors contend that changes in the organization of auto assembly are resulting in a spatial reconcentration of employment in the Midwestern United States. Hypotheses about spatial reconcentration do not take into account the structure of the auto parts industry and the extent that changes in assembly warrant a spatial reorganization of parts production. Using location and employment data for auto parts production, this analysis reveals that the current distribution of auto parts manufacturing varies by product, market, and corporate strategy.
High tech industries are thought to precipitate structural change in local economies through the creation of backward and forward linkages and new firm spinoffs. Case studies of high tech firms and products indicate interindustry linkage development is closely associated with product type and organizational structure of firms. Three product configurations, one-of-a-kind, customized and standardized, generate differing levels of linkage and spinoff potential.
The twentieth-century history of the Swiss watch industry illustrates how cultures and industrial production systems experience great difficulty adapting to external change at different points in time. The current emphasis on production networks - unique reservoirs of potential technological innovation realized through cooperation rather than competition among firms - lacks a detailed appreciation of historic networks, and in particular their fragile character in times of economic turmoil.