Journal Paper

A Subjective Measure of Car Dependence

A subjective measure of car dependence was developed based on people’s own assessment of their reliance on car use. The measure supplements the commonly used objective measure based on actual car use. Structural equation models (SEM) were estimated to quantify the subjective dependence and to examine its determinants: demographics, socioeconomics, and land use and transit access. The comparison between subjective dependence and actual car use discloses significant differences between both measures despite their statistical linkage.

Transit Passenger Incidence Behavior

Passenger incidence (station arrival) behavior has been studied primarily to understand how changes to a transit service will affect passenger waiting times. The impact of one intervention (i.e. increasing frequency) could be overestimated compared to another (i.e. improving reliability), depending on the assumption of incidence behavior. It is important to understand passenger incidence so that management decisions will be based on realistic behavioral assumptions.

Has Shanghai’s Transportation Demand Passed Its Peak Growth?

Based on four comprehensive transportation surveys in Shanghai, this study examines the latest trends in Shanghai’s travel demand, investigates their social, economic and spatial drivers, and compares the pace of travel demand growth in three periods: I) 1980s to early 90s; II) early 90s to mid 2000s; and III) mid 2000s to now. The demand growth is relatively slow in Period I, and then speeds up in Period II, before returning to a slower pace in Period III.

Automatic Data for Applied Railway Management

In 2009, London Overground management implemented a new tactical plan for AM and PM Peak service on the North London Line (NLL). This paper documents that tactical planning intervention and evaluates its outcomes in terms of certain aspects of service delivery (the operator’s perspective on system performance) and service quality (the passenger’s perspective). Analyses of service delivery and quality, and passenger demand contribute to the development, proposal, and implementation of the new tactical plan.

Bidding to Drive

Increased automobile ownership and use in China over the last two decades has increased energy consumption, worsened air pollution, and exacerbated congestion. However, the countrywide growth in car ownership conceals great variation among cities. For example, Shanghai and Beijing each had about 2 million motor vehicles in 2004, but by 2010, Beijing had 4.8 million motor vehicles whereas Shanghai had only 3.1 million. Among the factors contributing to this divergence is Shanghai’s vehicle control policy, which uses monthly license auctions to limit the number of new cars.


This paper describes the urban design of the digital city called AlphaWorld. AlphaWorld is a digital community created in 1995 and accessed daily through the internet by thousands of users. Unlike other digital communities, AlphaWorld’s users may also settle land and construct objects within the world. The design and content of these constructions are determined autonomously, and the cumulative result of this settlement is an organically evolved digital city.

Morphological Change Through Residential Redevelopment

This study examines the morphological changes that occur when residential redevelopment takes place in severely deteriorated inner-city areas. Six large redevelopments completed between 1990 and 2000 in Detroit, Michigan, USA are examined. Seven morphological characteristics of the new housing are compared with those of the housing that existed in 1951.

Incomplete and Incremental Plan Implementation in Downtown Providence, RI, 1960-2000

Between 1960 and 2000, Providence, Rhode Island, transformed its downtown through physical redevelopment. This article examines the proposals and implementation of seven major downtown plans issued for Providence during this period. Each plan proposed significant physical changes like the redevelopment of city blocks, the relocation of railroads, or the construction of open space. Despite Providence’s successful redevelopment reputation, the study found that Providence’s downtown plan implementation was both incomplete and incremental.

Valuing New Development in Distressed Neighborhoods

We estimate the effect of design on the assessed values of new housing units in high-poverty Chicago census tracts with a parcel-based hedonic regression in which we distinguish between three urban design types: enclave, traditional neighborhood development (TND), and infill. We find that urban design significantly affects housing values, and infill housing is more highly valued than either enclave or TND housing.

The Entertainment Zone

This paper describes informal, small-scale leisure and nightlife districts or entertainment zones (EZs) which have developed in or near the downtowns of mid-sized and large American cities in recent years. Occupying older vernacular buildings in marginal areas of downtown, the bars, cafes, restaurants, nightclubs and performance spaces of EZs have developed largely without the large-scale design, planning, government action or subsidy common in formal urban entertainment districts.